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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2011| January-April  | Volume 3 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 19, 2011

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Effect of caffeine on bladder function in patients with overactive bladder symptoms
Supatra Lohsiriwat, Muthita Hirunsai, Bansithi Chaiyaprasithi
January-April 2011, 3(1):14-18
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.75862  PMID:21346827
Objectives: To evaluate the effect of caffeine at the dose of 4.5 mg/kg on bladder function in overactive bladder (OAB) adults. Materials and Methods: Nine women and three men aged 21-40 years with OAB symptoms were included. Each subject drank 8 ml/kg of water with and without caffeine at two separate sessions. Cystometry and uroflowmetry were performed 30 minutes after each drink. The effects of caffeine on urodynamic parameters were compared. Results: After caffeine ingestion, the mean volume at bladder filling phase decreased at first desire to void and normal desire to void (P<0.05), compared to the mean volume after taking water (control) drink. The mean volume at strong desire to void, urgency and maximum cystometric capacity also tended to decrease. No change in the detrusor pressure at filling phase was found. At voiding phase, the maximal flow rate, average flow rate and voided volume were increased (P<0.05). The urine flow time and time to maximal flow rate were not changed. Conclusion: Caffeine at 4.5 mg/kg caused diuresis and decreased the threshold of sensation at filling phase, with an increase in flow rate and voided volume. So, caffeine can promote early urgency and frequency of urination. Individuals with lower urinary tract symptom should avoid or be cautious in consuming caffeine containing foodstuffs.
  26 11,272 1,336
Robot-assisted urologic surgery in 2010 - Advancements and future outlook
Paurush Babbar, Ashok K Hemal
January-April 2011, 3(1):1-7
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.75853  PMID:21346825
Robotic surgery is a cutting edge and minimally invasive procedure, which has generated a great deal of excitement in the urologic community. While there has been much advancement in this emerging technology, it is safe to say that robotic urologic surgery holds tremendous potential for progress in the near future. Hence, it is paramount that urologists stay up-to-date regarding new developments in the realm of robotics with respect to novel applications, limitations and opportunities for incorporation into their practice. Robot-assisted surgery provides an enhanced 3D view, increased magnification of the surgical field, better manual dexterity, relatively bloodless field, elimination of surgeon's tremor, reduction in a surgeon's fatigue and mitigation of scattered light. All these factors translate into greater precision of surgical dissection, which is imperative in providing better intraoperative and postoperative outcomes. Pioneering work assessing the feasibility of robotic surgery in urology began in the early 2000's with robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and has since expanded to procedures such as robot-assisted radical cystectomy, robot-assisted partial nephrectomy, robot-assisted nephroureterectomy and robot-assisted pyeloplasty. A MEDLINE search was used to identify recent articles (within the last two years) and publications of specific importance, which highlighted the recent developments and future direction of robotics. This review will use the aforementioned urologic surgeries as vehicles to evaluate the current status and future role of robotics in the advancement of the field of urology.
  20 9,533 1,484
Spontaneous subcapsular renal hematoma: A case report and review of literature
Ramen Kumar Baishya, Divya R Dhawan, RB Sabnis, Mahesh R Desai
January-April 2011, 3(1):44-46
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.75852  PMID:21346835
Spontaneous subcapsular renal hematoma is not a common entity. We report a 38-year-old lady presenting with sudden onset right flank pain with uncontrolled hypertension and she was found to have subcapsular collection in the right kidney on ultrasonography. Finding was confirmed on computed tomography. Except hypertension, no particular cause for the condition could be found. Symptoms and size of the collection decreased on conservative treatment. They completely disappeared on ultrasonography at 6 months follow-up. She was asymptomatic at 18 months follow-up.
  7 16,715 1,210
Neurogenic bladder evaluation and management after spinal cord injury: Current practice among urologists working in Saudi Arabia
Waleed Al Taweel, Abdullah Alkhayal
January-April 2011, 3(1):24-28
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.75872  PMID:21346829
Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the current trends in the management and surveillance of the NB population secondary to spinal cord injury (SCI) or myelomeningocele by certified urologist working in Saudi Arabia and to compare it to the current guidelines. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a 12-points questionnaire distributed to urologists working in Saudi Arabia and registered at the Saudi medical association. The assessment and follow-up of upper and lower urinary tract function in neurogenic bladder patients, their optimal frequency and management of related infections were the topics of inquiry. Results: Of the 272 urologists surveyed, 105 responded, yielding a response rate of 38%. Eighty-nine percent of respondents said that ultrasound was their diagnostic tool of choice for upper tract evaluation. Sixty-one percent of respondents said that they would follow their patients with a multichannel urodynamic study. Forty percent of urologists stated that they would treat asymptomatic bacteriuria. Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) was the most common modality chosen for the management of neurogenic bladder in patients with emptying difficulties. Conclusion: This study confirms that most urologists in Saudi Arabia involved with neurogenic bladder management. However, more than one third of the urologists do not have urodynamic machine and only two of the reporting practitioners has a videourodynamic machine. The results emphasize the need for clear guidelines in this field of urology in Saudi Arabia. Highly specialized rehabilitation centers for neurogenic bladder secondary to SCI are required for optimal care and urologist teaching.
  5 5,799 787
The validity of testicular catch-up growth and serum FSH levels in the long-term postoperative assessment of laparoscopic varicocele correction in adolescents
Aniruddh Deshpande, Ralph Cohen, Irene Tsang, Geoff Ambler, Steven Fleming
January-April 2011, 3(1):29-32
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.75870  PMID:21346830
Background: Postoperative assessment after varicocele surgery in adolescence is commonly centred around catch-up growth of the testis. There is paucity of evidence on the correlation of catch-up growth with underlying testicular function in these patients. Aims: To assess the reliability of catch-up growth of the testis as an indicator of normalization of testicular function and the utility of serum FSH levels in the long-term postoperative assessment of varicocele surgery in adolescence. Materials and Methods: Prospective cohort study of young adults (18-27 years) who had laparoscopic varicocele correction in adolescence (11-16 years). Evaluation included serum FSH levels, scrotal ultrasonography and semen analysis. Analysis: Anatomical and functional parameters of participants with equal and normal testicular size were compared to those of participants with persistent testicular hypotrophy or hypertrophy. Sensitivity and positive predictive value of postoperative serum FSH levels were estimated and elevated levels of serum FSH were checked for association with suboptimal outcomes of varicocele correction. Results: The serum FSH levels of participants with unequal testicular sizes (n=6, median 6.65 IU/l), which included testicular hypertrophy (n=3, median 7.2 IU/l) and persistent testicular hypotrophy (n=3, median 6.1 IU/l), were significantly higher than the group with equal testicular sizes (n=8, median 3.5 IU/l; P=0.014, Mann-Whitney U test). Postoperative elevated serum FSH levels were significantly associated with suboptimal outcomes of varicocele surgery (P=0.015, Fisher's exact test). The test also had a high positive predictive value. Conclusions: Testicular catch-up growth may not be a reliable postoperative assessment criterion by itself. Serum FSH levels may be of value in detecting suboptimal outcomes of varicocele surgery in adolescents.
  5 4,869 470
Composite adrenal medullary tumor: A rare cause of hypertension in a young male
Santosh Menon, Pravin Mahajan, Sangeeta B Desai
January-April 2011, 3(1):36-38
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.75860  PMID:21346832
Composite tumors of the adrenal medulla, containing pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma, are rare. A 27-year-old male presented to us with dyspnea and was found to have labile hypertension. A left suprarenal mass was detected on computed tomography. The patient was operated under the cover of alpha anti-adrenergic drugs. The histopathological examination demonstrated that the tumor consisted of pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma elements, and hence, a diagnosis of composite adrenal medullary tumor (CAMT) was made. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of CAMT reported from India.
  4 4,576 494
Prognostic significance of P27 (Kip 1) and MUC1 in papillary transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder
Taghreed A Abd Elazeez, Abd El-Latef M El-Balshy, Mostafa M Khalil, Magdy M El-Tabye, Hamdy Abdul-Halim
January-April 2011, 3(1):8-13
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.75857  PMID:21346826
Aim: To examine p27 (Kip 1) and MUC1 expression in specimens of papillary transitional cell carcinoma (PTCC) of the urinary bladder and to correlate their expression with the tumor grades,stages and outcome. Patients and Methods: Paraffin sections from previously diagnosed PTCC bladder were graded, staged and the patients were followed up for 5 years. Ten non-neoplastic urological lesions diagnosed as polypoid cystitis were taken as control. Three sections of 4 um thickness were obtained from every case. One was hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained for diagnosis, reviewing and confirmation. The other two sections were immunohistochemically stained for both p27and MUC1. The data of immunohistochemical results were correlated with the following conventional prognostic variables: tumor grade, stage, distant metastasis and 5 year survival. Results: The results showed a highly significant and an insignificant relationship between p27 expression and tumor grade and stage (P<0.01 and P>0.05), respectively. Correlating p27 expression with distant metastasis and overall survival showed a significant relationship with distant metastasis (P<0.05) and a highly significant one with overall survival (P<0.01). The results showed also a significant relationship between MUC1 expression and both tumor grade (P<0.01) and overall survival (P<0.05). Conclusion: p27 and MUC1 immunohistochemistry augment the classic histochemistry for the prognosis of PTCC of the bladder as well as improving the prediction of the patient outcome and survival.
  4 6,058 707
Histopathological patterns of testicular biopsy in male infertility: A retrospective study from a tertiary care center in the western part of Saudi Arabia
Layla Abdullah, Nabeel Bondagji
January-April 2011, 3(1):19-23
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.75867  PMID:21346828
Objective: To identify and categorize various pathological changes seen in testicular biopsies of males with infertility and to compare the results with data from other local and international studies. Materials and Methods: All testicular biopsies from males with infertility received by the Pathology Department of King AbdulAziz University Hospital, Jeddah, in the period from January 2004 until May 2010 are reviewed and histopathologically classified into seven categories as follows : Normal spermatogenesis, hypospermatogenesis, germ cell maturation arrest (GCMA), Sertoli cell only syndrome, seminiferous tubule hyalinization, mixed and discordant patterns. Results: One hundred testicular biopsies were identified in the computerized records of the Department of Pathology of King AbdulAziz University Hospital in the studied period. The age ranged from 22 to 70 years with a mean age of 24.5 years. The histopathological patterns were as follows: 14 (14%) cases were reported as normal spermatogenesis;(29, 29%) cases as hypospermatogesis; and 12 (12%) cases were reported as GCMA, mostly at the level of primary spermatocytes. The Sertoli cell only syndrome and the seminiferous tubule hyalinization categories were each reported in 16 cases (16%). Nine cases (9%) showed a mixed pattern. Discordant pattern was seen in 5 (5%) cases. Conclusion: Our study showed that hypospermatogenesis is the commonest pattern in testicular biopsies taken from males with infertility in our region. This study supports the recommendation of bilateral testicular biopsies when investigating male infertility.
  4 6,447 987
Giant polycystic kidney and acute abdomen in chronic renal failure
Pedro F Ferraz Arruda, Luis Cesar F Spessoto, Moacir Fernandes Godoy, Josť Maria Pereira de Godoy
January-April 2011, 3(1):39-41
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.75859  PMID:21346833
The case of a rare complication is reported of a 53-year-old patient with giant polycystic kidney (4250 g) that evolved with acute small bowel occlusion. The patient was submitted to surgery which identified that the intestinal occlusion was due to external compression of the intestinal loops. Excision of the mass solved the case.
  1 4,278 375
Segmental testicular infarction following cysto-prostatectomy
Adam I Alleemudder, Tarik Amer, Amrith Rao
January-April 2011, 3(1):42-43
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.75855  PMID:21346834
Segmental (partial) testicular infarction is a very rare condition of unknown cause in more than 70% of cases. Several predisposing conditions have been described, but to our knowledge, this is the first documented case and often overlooked complication occurring as a result of cysto-prostatectomy. It usually presents in an acute manner resembling testicular torsion or epididymo-orchitis and is confirmed using ultrasonography. In some cases, it may present insidiously with no pain and may be confused with a testicular tumor due to the hypo-echoic features on imaging. In unclear situations, Doppler sonography shows vascularity and a magnetic resonance scan can be useful to distinguish between the two conditions.
  - 8,362 391
MONTI as continent catheterized stoma using serosal-lined trough "Ghoneim Abolenin" technique in ileocystoplasty
Mohammed T Sammour, Abdulbari Bin Ajjaj
January-April 2011, 3(1):33-35
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.75863  PMID:21346831
It is a great challenge to select and perform continent mechanism in a stoma for urinary reservoir. A new technique by combining MONTI ileal conduit with the serosal lined trough in order to achieve continent catheterizable stoma to the umbilicus as a part of augmentation ileocystoplasty. We applied serosal-lined trough as a continent mechanism with MONTI ileal tube in 12 years smart girl underwent ileocystoplasty for neuropathic bladder due to meylomeningocele in whom continence failed to be achieved by using Mitrofanoff with submucosal tunnel of the bladder as continent mechanism before, also the previous operation included left to right transuretero-ureterostomy, ureterocystoplasty and reimplantation of the right ureter. The patient became completely continent; she was able to do self-catheterization easily through the umbilical stoma using 16-French catheter and was able to wash the mucous easily. The capacity of the augmented bladder was 300ccs. She became independent from her mother and stopped using diapers, anticholinergic and antibiotics. Combining MONTI conduit with serosal-lined extramural valve trough (The Ghoneim technique) is an effective continent technique and gives wider channel for catheterization and washing out the mucous.
  - 8,820 499