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Differentiation of renal cell tumors with morphological cocktails using a minimal panel of immunohistochemical markers

1 Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Basavatarakam Indo American Cancer Hospital and Research Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
2 Department of Surgical Oncology, Basavatarakam Indo American Cancer Hospital and Research Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Correspondence Address:
B Vishal Rao,
Basavatarakam Indo American Cancer Hospital and Research Institute, Road No. 14, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad - 500 034, Telangana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/UA.UA_131_18

Context: Morphological cocktails in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Aims: Minimal immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel to resolve the diagnosis of renal cell cacinoma (RCC) with morphological overlaps. Settings and Design: RCC is the most common malignancy in kidney accounting for 90% of all kidney cancers. Clear cell RCC is the most common histological type followed by papillary RCC. However, many of the RCCs show morphological cocktails which may pose diagnostic difficulties in small biopsies and even in the resection specimens. Accurate diagnosis has both prognostic and therapeutic implications; hence, correct differentiation is necessary. Subjects and Methods: This retrospective study includes all renal cell tumors diagnosed on core biopsies, radical and partial nephrectomies between January 2015 and September 2017 were studied. The demographic, clinical, and gross findings were noted. The cases that had morphological overlap among the subtypes were subjected to a panel of IHC markers, including CD10, CK7, alpha-methyl acyl-coenzymeA racemase (AMACR), and CD117. Results: There were 128 RCC in the study period, and morphological overlap was seen in 36 (27.9%) specimens including 13 core biopsies, 16 radical, and 7 partial nephrectomies. IHC resolved 35/36 (97.2%) cases rendering a diagnosis of clear cell (11), papillary (15), chromophobe (4), and oncocytoma (5). However, in one case where the provisional diagnosis was oncocytic tumor, all IHC markers were negative rendering IHC noncontributory. Conclusions: Difficulty in diagnosis was encountered in many core biopsies, resection specimens which when subjected to IHC panel of CD10, CK7, AMACR, and CD117 helped in resolving the diagnosis of subtypes of RCC.

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