The impact of stone composition on renal function
Anmar Nassir1, Hesham Saada2, Taghreed Alnajjar3, Jomanah Nasser4, Waed Jameel5, Soha Elmorsy6, Hattan Badr2
1 Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah; Department of Urology, King Abdullah Medical City, The Holy Capital (KAMC-HC); Department of Urology, International Medical Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Urology, King Abdullah Medical City, The Holy Capital (KAMC-HC), Makkah, Saudi Arabia
3 Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
4 Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
5 Department of General Surgery, King Abdulaziz Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
6 The Executive Administration of Research, King Abdullah Medical City, The Holy Capital (KAMC-HC), Saudi Arabia
Dr. Anmar Nassir
Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura Univ., Al-Abdeyah, P.O. Box 7607, Makkah, 21955
Background: Nephrolithiasis is a common condition that has various classifications according to stone composition. Stone formation can affect renal function; it can be a strong risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). The main objective of this study is to explore the association between creatinine clearance and different stone compositions.
Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary center in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between 2005 and 2014. Renal function was assessed by the estimating glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by the Cockcroft-Gault equation. Stone composition was determined by urinary calculi analysis with infrared spectrometry.
Results: Stones of 365 patients, with a mean age of 48.2 ± 13.6 years and a male to female ratio of 3.2:1, were analyzed. Stage 2 CKD has been documented. It involved oxalate, struvite, cystine, and uric acid stones. The worst eGFR was reported for stones containing uric acid. The eGFR was least affected with apatite stones followed by brushite stones.
Conclusion: Stone disease can affect renal function. Different stone compositions show factor for renal impairment, and this should be considered in patient management. A special precaution should be considered for higher risk groups. Multidisciplinary patient care and immediate referral to a nephrologist are strongly advised.